Nehemiah, (being cupbearer to the king of Persia Artaxerxes the second, who is mentioned by this name in the Word of God) having heard of the sad and miserable condition of his people, as also of the city, walls and gates of Jerusalem, humbles himself at this in the sight and presence of the Lord, by fasting and prayer. He requests after this at a good opportunity, and obtains from the king to be sent by him as his lieutenant or governor unto Jerusalem, with a charge and commission to reside there for a while, and to repair and redress whatsoever was amiss and out of order. This Nehemiah, being moved with a special zeal unto God’s glory, performs in a very faithful, wise, pious and constant manner, overcoming many difficulties and impediments which were cast in his way by Satan, for to stop and hinder him in this holy work, both by enemies abroad, and by false brethren and hypocrites at home, who held correspondence with the enemy. He also delivers the congregation from the heavy oppression of the rich, and executes the public worship of God by special duties, fasting and prayer, together with a renewing of a firm covenant with God. He furnishes Jerusalem with a sufficient number of inhabitants, dividing the rest of the people in their dwelling places. And after he had commendably administered his place of government in these twelve years, he returns again unto king Artaxerxes in the 33rd year of his reign, and is after a while again sent by the king to Jerusalem, where he removes and reforms many abuses which were crept in during his absence with great courage and resolution. This book bears the name of Nehemiah because in it is contained whatsoever happened in Judea during the time of his government there, and because it was written by himself by the inspiration of the Spirit of God, as plainly appears in several places of this book.