Boaz proposeth to the nearest of kin the redemption of Elimelech's land, and the marriage of Ruth. The kinsman declineth both according to the manner in Israel. Boaz buyeth the inheritance, and accepteth Ruth for his wife before the people. Ruth beareth Obed the grandfather of David. The generations of Pharez unto David.
1THEN went Boaz up to the 1gate, and sat him down there: and, behold, the kinsman of whom Boaz 2spake came by; unto whom 3he said, Ho, such a 4one! turn aside, sit down here. And he turned aside, and sat down.
1 Where they kept court, and the people assembled together.
2 See Ruth 3:12.
4 Hebr. peloni almoni. A phrase used by the Hebrews, when they mean anyone, whose name they know not, or, it may be, have forgotten, or intend not to name, instead whereof we use to say N.N. or, thou man, whatever be thy name. See also 2 Kings 6:8.
2And 5he took ten men of 6the elders of the city, and said, Sit ye down here. And they sat down.
6 See 1 Kings 21 on verse 8.
3And he said unto the kinsman, Naomi, that is come again out of the country of Moab, 7selleth a parcel of land, which was our 8brother Elimelech’s:
7 Namely, through need and want. See Lev. 25:25.
8 That is, kinsman.
4And I 9thought 10to advertisea thee, saying, 11Buy it before the inhabitants, and before the elders of my people. If thou wilt redeem it, redeem it: but if thou wilt not redeem it, then tell me, that I may know: for there is none to redeem it beside thee; and I am 12after thee. And he said, I will redeem it.
9 Hebr. I said. See Gen. 20 on verse 11.
10 Hebr. I will discover it before thine ear, that is, I will make thee hear it; I will reveal to thee, or make known to thee of which thou art ignorant; in order that thou, as being the nearest of kin mayest declare thy self, what thou meanest to do. When the ears are covered, a man can hardly hear; on the contrary, when they are uncovered, and free, or open, a man hears well. See the like phrase, 1 Sam. 9:15 and the annotation there. Likewise 2 Sam. 7:27; Job 33:16.
a tell, inform.
11 Other, Assume, and so in the following.
12 That is, I am the next after thee.
5Then said Boaz, What day thou buyest the field 13of the hand of Naomi, thou must buy it also of Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of the 14dead, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance.
13 That is, as being sold and alienated not only by Naomi, but also by Ruth, and in that respect thou must also marry Ruth, to raise up seed unto her deceased husband, whose next kinsman thou art, according to the law, Deut. 25:5.
14 Namely, Mahlon, the son of Elimelech.
6¶And the kinsman said, I cannot redeem it for myself, lest I 15mar mine own inheritance: redeem thou 16my right to thyself; for I cannot redeem it.
15 That is, lose it, and likewise my name becomes extinct. For, if he would beget but one son by Ruth, the same would be held and accounted as the son of the dead husband, and bear his name according to the law, Deut. 25:6; in order that this redeemer’s name would thereby be as it were dead.
16 That is, that, whereunto I have the right of redeeming.
7Nowb this was the manner in 17former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning 18changing, for to confirm all things; a man plucked off 19his shoe, and gave it to 20his neighbour: and this was a 21testimony in Israel.
b Deut. 25:7.
17 Or, heretofore, in times past.
18 At all transactions or public exchanges.
19 Compare Deut. 25 on verse 9.
20 To whom he resigned up his right, and was himself debarred thereof for the future.
21 That a man resigned up his right of any land or inheritance to another, to be enjoyed and possessed by him as his own.
8Therefore the kinsman said unto Boaz, Buy it for thee. So 22he drew off his shoe.
22 Forasmuch as here is no mention made of Ruth, and Naomi had commanded her to keep herself quiet, and to let Boaz alone with the business, Ruth 3:18; therefore from thence may be gathered, that Ruth was not here present; neither did manage this business before the court, but Boaz; therefore this man delivered his shoe unto Boaz. Otherwise the Law, Deut. 25:9, would doubtless have been prosecuted, unless the same had been mitigated by man’s discretion and audacity.
9¶And Boaz said unto the elders, and unto all the people, Ye are witnesses this day, that I have bought all that was Elimelech's, and all that was Chilion's and Mahlon’s, 23of the hand of Naomi.
23 That is, being exchanged or sold by Naomi, as verse 5.
10Moreover Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, have I 24purchased to be my wife, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance, that the name of the dead be not cut off from among his brethren, and from the gate of his place: ye are witnesses this day.
24 Hebr. buy, get, obtain.
11And all the people that were in the gate, and the elders, said, We are witnesses. The LORD make the woman that is come into thine house like Rachelc and like Leah, which two did 25build the house of Israel: and 26do thou worthily in Ephratah, and 27be famous in Beth-lehem:
c Gen. 29:32, etc.; 30:24, 25; 35:17, 18.
25 That is, have the house of Jacob increased by bringing forth children. See Gen. 16 on verse 2.
26 Or, make, get riches, attain strength, grow powerful, being able.
27 Hebr. proclaim the name.
12And let thy house be like the house of Pharez,d28whom Tamar bare unto Judah, of the seed which the LORD shall give thee of this young woman.
d Gen. 38:29; 1 Chron. 2:4; Mat. 1:3.
28 Here, and in the following is discovered the main cause, wherefore the Holy Ghost is pleased to insert this whole history of Ruth into the Canonical books of the Holy Scripture, and to preserve the same; namely, that the truth of God’s promise might appear, that the Messiah would spring forth from Judah (Gen. 49:10) Whose genealogy (according to the flesh) is related in the following verses, unto David, and so from David unto Christ, Matthew 1 and Luke 3.
13¶So Boaz took Ruth, and she was his wife: and when he 29went in unto her, the LORD gave her 30conception, and she bare a son.
29 See Gen. 6 on verse 4.
30 Or, pregnancy.
14And the women said unto Naomi, 31Blessed be the LORD, 32which hath not left thee this day without a 33kinsman, that his name may be 34famous in Israel.
31 Or, Praised.
32 Hebr. who hath not caused to cease unto thee a redeemer.
33 Meaning: the son of Ruth, who as heir did enter into his father’s (namely, Mahlon’s, who was Naomi’s son) seed, as from the sequel may be gathered. Others understand this of Boaz.
34 Hebr. proclaimed or named. Compare verse 11.
15And he shall be unto thee a 35restorer of thy life, and a 36nourisher of thine old age: for thy daughter in law, which loveth thee, 37which is better to thee than 38seven sons, hath born him.
35 Hebr. a restorer of the soul; that is, he shall restore and redress your life and vigor, and make thee as it were young again. Compare Psalm 19 on verse 7; Psalm 23:3; Lam. 1:11, 19.
36 Or, feed, support. See the like use of the Hebrew word, Gen. 45:11; 47:12; 1 Kings 18:4; Psalm 55:22.
37 Ruth, the daughter in law.
38 That is, than many sons. See Gen. 4 on verse 15.
16And Naomi took the child, and laid it in her bosom, and became nurse unto it.
17And the women her neighbours gave it a name, saying, There is a son born to Naomi; and they called his name Obed: he is the father of 39Jesse, the father of David.
39 Hebr. Ischaï.
18¶Now these are the 40generations of Pharez: Phareze begat 41Hezron,
40 That is, off spring, posterity, who were born and descended from Perez.
e 1 Chron. 2:5; Mat. 1:3.
41 Hebr. Chetsron.
19And Hezron begat Ram, and Ram begat Amminadab,
20And Amminadab begat 42Nahshon, and Nahshon begat Salmon,
42 Hebr. Nachschon.
21And Salmon begat Boaz, and Boaz begat Obed,
22And Obed begat Jesse, and Jesse begat David.