Judges 1

1Judah and Simeon carry on the war against the Canaanites, and defeat Adoni-bezek, who is justly requited for his cruelty. 8Jerusalem taken. 10The sons of Anak in Hebron slain. 11Othniel taketh Debir, and in reward hath Achsah Caleb's daughter to wife. 16The Kenites dwell in the country of Judah. 17Hormah, Gaza, Askelon, and Ekron, are taken by Judah and Simeon. Hebron is given to Caleb. 21The Jebusites are not expelled out of Jerusalem. 22The house of Joseph take Bethel. Luz built. 27The Canaanites are not wholly driven out by Manasseh, 29by Ephraim, 30by Zebulun, 31by Asher, 33and by Naphtali. 34The Amorites force Dan into the mountain.

1NOW after the death of Joshua it came to pass, that the children of Israel 1asked the LORD, saying, Whoa shall go up for us against the Canaanites first, to fight against them?

1 Through the high priest, wearing the ephod. See for this the command of God, Num. 27:21 and compare Judges 20:18; 1 Sam. 23:9.

a Judges 20:18

2And the LORD said, 2Judah shall go up: behold, I have delivered the land into his hand.

2 That is, the tribe of Judah. So in the following verse, Simeon, that is, the tribe of Simeon; and so forward in the remainder.

3And Judah said unto 3Simeon his brother, Come up with me into my 4lot, that we may fight against the Canaanites; and I likewise will go with thee into thy lot. So Simeon went with him.

3 The inheritance of Judah and Simeon were partly intermixed or common between them. See Joshua 19:1, 9.

4 That is, to subdue and take possession of the land that is fallen to me by lot.

4And Judah went up; and the LORD delivered the Canaanites and the Perizzites into 5their hand: and they slew of them in 6Bezek ten thousand men.

5 Into the hand of Judah and Simeon.

6 Which was situated not far from Jerusalem. See also 1 Sam. 11:8.

5And they found Adoni-bezek in Bezek: and they fought against him, and they slew the Canaanites and the Perizzites.

6But Adoni-bezek fled; and they pursued after him, and caught him, and 7cut off his thumbs and his great toes.

7 The cause of this was his abominable tyranny mentioned in the following verse.

7And Adoni-bezek said, Threescore and ten kings, having their thumbs and their great toes cut off, gathered 8their meat under my table: as I have done, so God hath requited me. And they brought him to Jerusalem, and there he died.

8 Or, the crumbs, which fell from the table, or was cast to them.

8Now the children of Judah 9had fought against Jerusalem, and had 10taken it, and smitten it with the 11edge of the sword, and 12set the city on fire.

9 Other, fought, or did fight; but the opinion of most is, that here by occasion, that in the foregoing verse it is said, that they brought down Adoni-bezek to Jerusalem, the capturing of Jerusalem, and some other passages (unto the 17th verse) were repeated out of the book of Joshua, as may be seen in Joshua 15.

10 Understand that part of the city which was fallen to their share, not the other part which appertained to Benjamin together with them, nor the strong hold: See Joshua 15:8, 63; 18:11, 28. Also below verse 21 with the annotation.

11 Hebr. at the mouth of the sword.

12 Hebr. sent; that is, they had cast fire into it; so Judges 20:48.

9¶Andb13afterward the children of Judah went down to fight against the Canaanites, that dwelt in the mountain, and in the south, and in the valley.

b Joshua 10:36; 11:21; 15:13.

13 After the capture of Jerusalem.

10Andc14Judah went against the Canaanites that dwelt in 15Hebron: (now the name of Hebron before was Kirjath-arba:) and they slew 16Sheshai, and Ahiman, and Talmai.

c Joshua 15:14.

14 Under the conduct of Joshua and Caleb, Joshua 15:14.

15 See Joshua 15:13.

16 Three giants, children of Anak, as is related in verse 20.

11And from thence 17he went against the inhabitants of Debir:d and the name of 18Debir before was Kirjath-sepher:

17 Judah.

d Joshua 15:15, etc.

18 See Joshua 12:13.

12And Caleb said, He that smiteth Kirjath-sepher, and taketh it, to him will I give Achsah my daughter to wife.

13And Othniel 19the son of Kenaz, Caleb’s 20younger 21brother, took it: and he gave him Achsah his daughter to wife.

19 That is, one of Kenaz’ posterity, as some do understand this.

20 Hebr. smaller, or lesser than he, namely Kenaz. Other, who (namely, Othniel) was the youngest of, or out of him, namely, Kenaz; that is, the youngest and insignificant among all the posterity of Kenaz, and yet notwithstanding honored and exalted above others, by this courageous and valiant act, the marriage that followed, and also the office of judge: Judges 3:9, etc.

21 That is, cousin, near kinsman. Some understand this of Othniel, others of Kenaz. Compare Num. 32:12; Joshua 15:17; Judges 3:9, 11; 1 Chron. 4:13, 15.

1422And it came to pass, when she came to him, that she 23moved him to ask of her father a field: and she lighted from off her ass; and Caleb said unto her, What wilt thou?

22 See of this account, Joshua 15:18, 19 and the annotations there.

23 Or, sought unto him.

15And she said unto him, Give me a 24blessing: for thou hast given me a 25south land; give me also springs of water. And Caleb gave her the upper springs and the nether springs.

24 See Gen. 33 on verse 11.

25 Or, a barren land. Hebr. south land.

16¶And the children of the 26Kenite, Moses’ father in law, went up out of 27the city of palm trees with the children of Judah into the wilderness of Judah, which lieth in the south of 28Arad; 29and they went and dwelt among the people.

26 Understand Jethro. See Num. 24:21, 22.

27 Jericho. See Deut. 34 on verse 3.

28 The name of a city situated near mount Seir, and peradventure also of a king of the same place. See Num. 21:1.

29 Hebr. and he went and dwelt or abode with or by the people. He, namely the Kenite, that is, Jethro’s posterity. Some translate it thus: for he (the Kenite) was along with them and had remained or had dwelt with the people, namely, Israel. See Num. 10:29; 24:21, 22; 1 Sam. 15:6.

17And 30Judah went with Simeon his brother, and they slew the Canaanites that inhabited 31Zephath, and utterly 32destroyed it. And the name of the city was called 33Hormah.

30 Here the history, which was left off in verse 8, is reassumed and pursued.

31 This place is nowhere else mentioned; only we find 2 Chron. 14:9, 10 the valley of Zephathah, at Mareshah in Judah. Some there translate it: The valley lying towards Zephath.

32 See Deut. 2 on verse 34.

33 That is, ban, banning. Compare Num. 14:45; 21:3. Some perceive that this Hormah was the royal city, situated on the southern borders of Canaan at the west end of Mount Seir. See Joshua 12:14; 15:30; 19:4; 1 Sam. 30:30; 1 Chron. 4:30.

18Also Judah took 34Gaza with the 35coast thereof, and Askelon with the coast thereof, and Ekron with the coast thereof.

34 These cities were situated in the country of the Philistines, at the Mediterranean Sea, and are often mentioned in Holy Scripture.

35 That is, the surrounding region; so in the following.

19And the LORD was with Judah; and he drave out the inhabitants of the mountain; but 36could not drive out the inhabitants of the valley, 37because they had chariots of iron.

36 Namely, Judah. Other, but not driving out.

37 Although the Lord was with Judah in the subduing and taking of the mountain, yet notwithstanding he was not courageous enough to pursue the rest, through human fear, which here prevailed more with him, than the command and promises of God, Joshua 13:6; 17:18. Of the iron chariots then used in battle, see Joshua 17:18.

20And they gave 38Hebron unto Caleb, as Mosese said: and he expelled thence the 39three sons of Anak.

38 See the history hereof, Joshua 14 from the 6th verse to the end of the chapter.

e Num. 14:24; Joshua 14:13.

39 Of whom mention is made above, verse 10. Of Anak and his posterity, who were giants, see Num. 13 on verse 22. Other, of the giant.

21And the children of Benjamin did not drive out the Jebusites that inhabited 40Jerusalem; but the Jebusites dwell with the children of Benjamin in Jerusalem unto 41this day.

40 Understand in the upper part of the city and the stronghold which was fallen unto Benjamin’s share, in regard their inheritances was partly situated among those of Judah, Joshua 18:11. Judah had taken his, as verse 8. Out of the stronghold the Jebusites were not expelled till David’s time, 2 Sam. 5:6, 7.

41 When this was written by the author of this book.

22¶And the house of Joseph, they also went up against Beth-el: and the LORD was with them.

23And the house of Joseph sent to descryf Beth-el. (Now the name of the city beforegwas 42Luz.)

f spy out, make search

g Gen. 28:19.

42 See Gen. 28:19.

24And the 43spies saw a man come forth out of the city, and they said unto him, Shew us, we pray thee, the entrance into the city, and we will shew thee mercy.

43 Who were sent forth to spy out the situation of the city.

25And when he shewed them the entrance into the city, they smote the city with the edge of the sword; but they let go the man and all his family.

26And the man went into the land of the 44Hittites, and built a city, and called the name thereof Luz: which is the name thereof unto this day.

44 Who dwelt on the north side of mount Ephraim.

27¶Neitherh did 45Manasseh drive out the inhabitants of 46Beth-shean and her 47towns, nor 48Taanach and her towns, nor the inhabitants of Dor and her towns, nor the inhabitants of 49Ibleam and her towns, nor the inhabitants of Megiddo and her towns: but the Canaanites 50would dwell in that land.

h Joshua 17:11, 12.

45 Understand, the half tribe which dwelt in Canaan; not those who dwelt beyond Jordan in Gilead, and Bashan.

46 That is, the inhabitants of Beth-shean; as in the sequel is set forth. Beth-shean was situated by Jordan on the west side: see Joshua 17:11.

47 That is, the surrounding places, resorting under them. Hebr. daughters.

48 Situated in mount Gilboa. See also Joshua 17:11; 21:25.

49 Joshua 17:11. Both these places were situated near to the Mediterranean Sea.

50 Or, found good, consented, or began (Hebr. the Canaanite would, etc.), namely, either out of willfulness, or on condition of tribute; as some expound this out of the following verse. So verse 35. See also Joshua 17:12.

28And it came to pass, when Israel was strong, that they put the Canaanites to tribute, and did not 51utterly drive them out.

51 Hebr. driving out, he drave them not out; namely, the Canaanites.

29¶Neitheri did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites that dwelt in 52Gezer; but the Canaanites dwelt in Gezer among them.

i Joshua 16:10.

52 Situated by the brook of Gaash, toward the Mediterranean Sea; being also a city of the Levites, Joshua 21:21.

30¶Neither did Zebulun drive out the inhabitants of 53Kitron, nor the inhabitants of 54Nahalol; but the Canaanites dwelt among 55them, and became tributaries.

53 Situated by the mountain of Zebulon, westward, near unto the source of the brook Jiphthah-el.

54 See Joshua 19:15.

55 Zebulon.

31¶Neither did Asher drive out the inhabitants of 56Accho, nor the inhabitants of Zidon, nor of 57Ahlab, nor of Achzib, nor of Helbah, nor of Aphik, nor of Rehob:

56 These places were situated by the Mediterranean Sea; only Aphik and Ahlab were situated somewhat further land-ward. Of Asher’s lot, see Joshua 19:24, etc. Rehob was also a city of the Levites, Joshua 21:31, likewise also land-ward. See Num. 13:21.

57 That is, the inhabitants of these cities.

32But the Asherites dwelt among the Canaanites, the inhabitants of the land: for they did not drive them out.

33¶Neither did Naphtali drive out the inhabitants of 58Beth-shemesh, nor the inhabitants of Beth-anath; but he dwelt among the Canaanites, the inhabitants of the land: nevertheless the inhabitants of Beth-shemesh and of Beth-anath became tributaries unto them.

58 See of both these cities, situated in Naphtali, Joshua 19:38.

34And the Amorites forced the children of Dan into the mountain: for they would not suffer them to come down to 59the valley:

59 That is, the lower parts, or plains.

35But the Amorites 60would dwell in mount Heres in 61Aijalon, and in Shaalbim: yet the hand of the house of Joseph prevailed, so that they became 62tributaries.

60 See on verse 28.

61 See Joshua 19:42; 21:24. Shaalbim was located in the valley of Eshcol, Ajalon from thence in the northwest, toward the west sea, on the borders of Dan. Other places of this name see Judges 12:12.

62 Hebr. became, or were tributary. The meaning is: those of the house of Joseph came to help Dan, and compelled or forced the Amorites so far, that they became tributary unto them.

36And the coast of the Amorites was from the going up to 63Akrabbim, from the 64rock, and upward.

63 Situated by the south-end of the salt sea, and on the east-end of mount Seer, upon the uttermost borders of Canaan toward the south. See Joshua 15:2, 3, 5.

64 Other, Sela, or Petra Arabiæ; a famous city, positioned upon a rock.