1After a general address, Jude exhorteth Christians to constancy in the received faith. 4He foretelleth the punishment of certain false teachers crept into the church, and describeth their evil doctrine and manners. 20He exhorteth true Christians to persevere in the right faith, and in the love of God; 22and to seek the reformation of others. 24He concludeth with ascribing glory to God.

1JUDE,12the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of 3James, to them that are sanctified 4by God the Father, and 5preserved in Jesus Christ, and 6called:

1 Amongst the apostles of Christ, there were two by this name: one who was surnamed Iscariot, the betrayer of our Lord, and one who was also called Thaddæus and Lebbæus, Mat. 10:3, who for distinction’s sake was called Judas, not Iscariot, John 14:22, who also is called for distinction Judas the brother of James, Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13. This is he who wrote this epistle.

2 That is, apostle. See Rom. 1:1; Titus 1:1; James 1:1; 2 Peter 1:1.

3 There were also two by this name amongst the apostles, Mat. 10:2, 3: one, who was a son of Zebedee and a brother of the evangelist John, and one who was a son of Alphæus, surnamed the less. Judas was the brother of this second, whom he adds in the superscription to distinguish him from the other and also to strengthen his own authority thereby, seeing this James was in great esteem amongst the apostles. See Luke 6:16; Acts 15:13; Gal. 2:9, and the annotation on the superscription of the epistle of James.

4 Gr. in, namely, by the Spirit of regeneration.

5 Namely, in the salvation, which He has procured for them. See John 10:18; 17:12; 1 Peter 1:5.

6 See Rom. 1:6.

27Mercy unto you, and peace, and love, be 8multiplied.

7 See the like salutation, Titus 1:4.

8 See of this word, 1 Peter 1:2 and 2 Peter 1:2.

3Beloved, when I gave all diligence to write unto you of 9the common salvation, it was 10needful for me to write unto you, and exhort you that ye should earnestly 11contend 12for the faith which was 13once 14delivered unto the saints.

9 That is, of matters which concern the salvation of us all, which you have in common with us apostles. See Titus 1:3.

10 Namely, to do the same now. The reason of this necessity is shown in the following verse.

11 Namely, against the deception and evil examples of ungodly mockers, that you be not overcome and deceived by them to apostasy or ungodliness, 1 Tim. 6:12.

12 That is, for the pure doctrine of the Gospel, as 1 Tim. 4:1, to retain it, and not to turn away from it.

13 That is, which shall not be changed, but always remains as such as it was once taught by Christ and the apostles.

14 Namely, by Christ and His apostles.

4Fora there are certain men 15crept in unawares, whob were 16before of 17old ordained 18to this condemnation, 19ungodly men, 20turning 21the grace of our God into 22lasciviousness, and 23denying the only 24Lord 25God, and our Lord Jesus Christ.

a 2 Peter 2:1.

15 That is, secretly and deceitfully have come amongst the Christians. See Gal. 2:4; 1 Peter 2:1.

b 1 Peter 2:8; 2 Peter 2:3.

16 Namely, by God in the register of reprobate persons. A similitude taken from men who keep their book registers, in which they set down the names of those they have to do withal, each one in his order. See Philip. 4:3.

17 Or, long ago, as 2 Peter 2:3.

18 Namely, whereby God has justly given them up to a corrupt mind, Rom. 1:24, 26, 28; 2 Thes. 2:10, 11, and shall hereafter punish them with eternal damnation.

19 That is, who regard neither God nor His service.

20 Gr. transfer, transpose, that is, misuse it, thereupon to sin the more freely, and to commit all manner of lasciviousness. See Gal. 5:13; 1 Peter 2:16; 2 Peter 2:19.

21 That is, the doctrine of the grace of God.

22 Or, wantonness, immodesty, lustfulness.

23 See the annotation at 2 Peter 2 on verse 1.

24 Or, Ruler. Gr. despotèn. See of this word, Acts 4:24; 2 Peter 2:1.

25 Or, our God and Lord Jesus Christ.

5I will therefore put you 26in remembrance, though ye 27once knew this, how that the Lord, 28having saved 29the people out of the land of Egypt, afterwardc30destroyed them that believed not.

26 That is, relate and bring to your mind some examples of God’s judgments against such persons.

27 That is, certainly, fully, rightly, unchangeably.

28 Or, having delivered. Gr. having saved.

29 Namely, of Israel.

c Num. 14:29; 26:64, 65; Psalm 106:26; 1 Cor. 10:5; Heb. 3:17.

30 That is, has ruined them in the wilderness; which temporal punishment was a representation of the eternal, Heb. 3:17, etc.

6Andd the angels which kept not their 31first estate, but left their 32own habitation, hee hath reserved in 33everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment 34of the great day.

d 2 Peter 2:4.

31 That is, their first-state, in which they were created after God’s image and put in the heavenly blessedness with the good angels, John 8:44. Or, origin, or, dominion. For, the Greek word signifies all these three things.

32 That is, heaven, the place of blessedness, where the good angels have still their habitation, Mat. 24:36; Mark 12:25; Luke 2:15; from which these apostate angels were justly thrust out.

e 2 Peter 2:4.

33 See the annotation at 2 Peter 2 on verse 4.

34 Namely, in which that great work of the resurrection and judgment of all men and the end of the world shall come to pass, and Christ shall appear in His glory.

7Even asf Sodom and Gomorrha, and 35the cities about them in like manner, giving 36themselves over to fornication, and going after 37strange flesh, are set forth 38for an example, suffering the vengeance 39of eternal fire.

f Gen. 19:24; Deut. 29:23; Isa. 13:19; Jer. 50:40; Ezek. 16:49; Hosea 11:8; Amos 4:11; Luke 17:29; 2 Peter 2:6.

35 Namely, Admah and Zeboim, as they are mentioned in Deut. 29:23.

36 Namely, inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah.

37 The apostle describes this in modest terms the abominable sin of the Sodomites. See Rom. 1:27.

38 Namely, of God’s righteous wrath and punishment against such sinners, to take a warning from it for themselves.

39 See of this punishment, Mat. 25:41.

8Likewise also 40these filthy 41dreamers defile 42the flesh, despise 43dominion, and speak evil of 44dignities.

40 Namely, ungodly men, spoken of in verse 4.

41 Or, dreaming. This is understood either according to the letter, or in a spiritual manner, that they, being as it were lulled into the sleep of sin, defile their flesh with harlotries, adultery, etc.

42 That is, their bodies, in which these sins are committed, and which are defiled thereby. See 1 Cor. 6:18.

43 That is, they who are placed in authority, and the very office itself.

44 That is, those who are set over men in eminency, power, honor and authority. See 2 Peter 2:10.

9Yet 45Michaelg46the archangel, 47when contending with the devil he disputed about 48the body of Moses, dursth not bring against him a railing 49accusation, but said, 50Thei Lord rebuke thee.

45 This is the proper name of the archangel, which is found also in Dan. 10:13; 12:1; Rev. 12:7, and is as much as to say, who is like unto God? Which name may also well be ascribed to the Lord Jesus Christ, but He is also in 1 Thes. 4:16 expressly distinguished from the archangel.

g Dan. 10:13; 12:1; Rev. 12:7.

46 That is, the highest angel, or one of the highest angels. See of this name, 1 Thes. 4:16, and the annotation there at 1 Thes. 4 on verse 16.

47 This history is not written in the writings of the Old Testament, so that it seems that Jude has this either by some tradition from hand to hand, or out of some writing that we do not now have; as he also, verse 14, relates the prophecy of Enoch; as Paul also relates the names of the Egyptian sorcerers, 2 Tim. 3:8. From this cannot be concluded that the Holy Scripture is imperfect. See the annotations there at 2 Tim. 3 on verse 8.

48 This is by many understood of the dead body of Moses, when he had died on Mount Nebo, which God buried in an unknown place, that the Israelites might not commit idolatry with his dead bones, as is done by many at this day with the bones of martyrs and other saints, Deut. 34:1, 6, and think that the devil sought to hinder this, to bring the people to idolatry.

h 2 Peter 2:11.

49 That is, a reviling judgment, reviling words, or reproachful words, whereby someone is condemned. See 2 Peter 2:11.

50 Similarly we read this in Zech. 3:2, to which some think that the apostle has here respect.

i Zech. 3:2.

10Butj these speak evil of those things which they know not: but what they know 51naturally, as brute beasts, in those things they 52corrupt themselves.

j 2 Peter 2:12.

51 That is, by their very outward senses.

52 Namely, by reason that they abuse those things with excess and lasciviousness, whereby they corrupt both body and soul.

1153Woe unto them! for they have gone 54in the way of Cain,k and ran greedily after thel error of Balaam 55for reward, andm56perished 57in the gainsaying of Core.

53 That is, an eternal misery shall come upon them.

54 That is, have followed the example of Cain in hating and persecuting their brethren.

k Gen. 4:8; 1 John 3:12.

l Num. 22:7, 21; 2 Peter 2:15.

55 That is, even as Balaam through covetousness, for reward’s sake, suffered himself to be deceived to curse God’s people, although God hindered him from it, so these also teach false doctrines and reproach the true doctrine merely for filthy lucre’s sake. Gr. poured out, that is, as water, poured out, flows away of itself, so they, with great covetousness are also carried away.

m Num. 16:1.

56 Or, are brought into destruction, even as Korah, with his companions, Dathan and Abiram, with all that they had, sunk down alive into the earth, Num. 16:31, etc.

57 That is, imitating the rebellion and sedition of Korah against their authorities.

12These are spotsn in your 58feasts of charity, when they feast 59with you, 60feeding themselves 61without fear: cloudsothey are without water, carried about of winds; trees whose fruit 62withereth, without fruit, 63twice dead, plucked up by the roots;

n 2 Peter 2:13.

58 Gr. agapais; that is, loves. As such the feasts were called which the early Christians were accustomed to keep together for the strengthening of love, when the evening meal was held, of which the apostle Paul speaks, 1 Cor. 11:21, 22, and which are described by Tertullianus, Apologeticum, cap. 36.

59 That is, are invited by you to a particular feast.

60 That is, they fill and fatten themselves with gluttony and excess. See Ezek. 34:2.

61 Namely, that they shall be punished for it by God; or, as being ashamed before men.

o 2 Peter 2:17.

62 That is, which then have left neither fruits nor leaves. Or, which indeed sometimes may bring forth blossoms and the beginnings of fruits, but they perish, and decay soon.

63 That is, totally, having neither fruits nor leaves.

1364Ragingp waves of the sea, 65foaming out their own shame; 66wandering stars, to whom is reserved 67the blackness of darkness for ever.

64 That is, tempestuous, fierce.

p Isa. 57:20.

65 That is, casting forth as scum and filthiness, namely, their tempestuous, foul and reviling words, and shameful deeds.

66 That is, planets, which, though they have a certain course, yet seem to us to wander, because their course is not uniform with the other stars. Whereunto he compares their unsteadfastness.

67 See the exposition hereof, 2 Peter 2 on verse 17.

14And Enochq also, 68the seventh from Adam, 69prophesied of these, saying, Behold,r the Lord 70cometh with 71ten thousands of his saints,

q Gen. 5:18.

68 Namely, Adam, himself being of the number, thus, Adam, Seth, Enos, Cainan, Mahalaleel, Jared, Enoch. See Genesis 5.

69 This prophesy is nowhere written in the writings of the Old Testament, but seems to have been delivered from hand to hand among the Jews, and God caused the same to be written by the apostle Jude amongst the Holy Scripture to be everlastingly preserved in the congregation. See verse 9.

r Dan. 7:10; Acts 1:11; 1 Thes. 1:10; 2 Thes. 1:10; Rev. 1:7.

70 That is, shall come. So the prophets speak to show thereby the certainty of the fulfillment of the prophesy, as if it came now to pass or were come to pass. See 1 Cor. 16:22.

71 Gr. holy ten thousands, namely, of angels. A certain number for an uncertain great number. See Dan. 7:10; Mat. 24:31; 25:31.

15To 72execute judgment 73upon all, and 74to convince all 75that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, ands of all 76their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against 77him.

72 Gr. to do, or, to give judgment.

73 Namely, unbelieving and impenitent sinners. For, here is spoken of the judgment of condemnation, into which believing and penitent sinners shall not come, John 5:24.

74 Gr. to reprove, or, to punish.

75 That is, who are eminent in ungodliness among them, and reproach, persecute and oppress the godly; such as are here described by the apostle.

s Mat. 12:36.

76 That is, not only concerning their ungodly works, but also for their absurd, railing and reproachful words, which are hard to be endured.

77 Namely, the Lord, Who shall come to keep judgment, verse 14; that is, against His person, doctrine and congregation.

16These are 78murmurers, 79complainers, walking after 80their own lusts; andt their mouth speaketh great swelling words, having men's persons in 81admirationu82because of advantage.

78 Namely, against God, that He does not satisfy them, as well as against men, and especially those who are placed over them, with whose government they are not content.

79 That is, not being content with the state or portion that God has appointed them.

80 Namely, fleshly lusts. See Rom. 8:1, 5; 2 Cor. 10:3; Gal. 5:16; 2 Peter 3:3.

t 2 Peter 2:18.

81 That is, as with admiration commending and flattering the persons, who are in esteem for their riches and power, and may be advantageous to them.

u wonder, astonishment

82 By this flattery to get advantage by them.

17But, beloved, remember ye the words which were spoken before 83of the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ;

83 From this does not follow that this Jude would not himself have been an apostle of Christ. For, Peter makes also mention of the epistles of Paul, 2 Peter 3:15, but only that he wrote after the other apostles. He has here mainly respect to the apostles Paul and Peter.

18How that they told you therev should be mockers in the last time, who should walk after their own 84ungodly lusts.

v Acts 20:29; 1 Tim. 4:1; 2 Tim. 3:1; 4:3; 2 Peter 2:1; 3:3.

84 Gr. lusts of ungodliness.

19These be they who 85separate themselves, 86sensual, having not 87the Spirit.

85 Namely, from the holy assemblies of believers. Or, make separation and schisms in the congregation.

86 Gr. natural, as 1 Cor. 2:14; James 3:15. See the annotations there at 1 Cor. 2 on verse 14; James 3 on verse 15.

87 Namely, of God, that is, the Spirit of regeneration; which appears from this, because their fleshly lusts have the upper hand and reign in them, which is not so in them who have the Spirit of regeneration.

20But ye, beloved, 88building up 89yourselves on 90your most holy faith, 91praying 92in the Holy Ghost,

88 Or, edify, that is, set your foundation fast, and increase daily more and more in the faith.

89 Or, one another, as 1 Thes. 5:11.

90 That is, in the confidence that you have in our Savior Jesus Christ, to retain that, to increase therein, and to establish all christian virtues thereon, Rom. 14:23; Heb. 11:6. Or, on the doctrine of the holy prophets and apostles, which you believe and have received at one time, Eph. 2:20, daily increasing therein more and more, and abiding firmly in the same.

91 Namely, to God, that He, by His Divine grace and power, would strengthen you therein. From which appears that when we are exhorted to edify and to keep ourselves, such keeping does not proceed from our own abilities, but from the grace and power of God, to Whom we must pray for it.

92 Or, by the Holy Ghost, Rom. 8:26.

2193Keep 94yourselves 95in the love of God, looking for 96the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.

93 Namely, carefully using all means to abide and increase therein. See the previous verse.

94 Or, one another, as before.

95 This may be understood either in the love wherewith God loves us, to abide in His favor and friendship; or, in the love which we bear unto God, to persevere and increase therein; we must seek after both. But the second seems to agree more with the purpose of the apostle.

96 That is, the gracious sentence or judgment which He shall pronounce upon us believers, without our merits, of mere mercy, in the day of judgment, Mat. 25:34.

22And of some 97have compassion, 98making a difference:

97 That is, reprove and admonish some out of mercy, and having compassion with their infirmity. Namely, such as sin of infirmity, and are not willful, Gal. 6:1.

98 Namely, between the weak and the willful, between teachable and obstinate, namely, to order your reproofs and admonitions according to everyone’s condition with mildness, or with sharpness, the better to win them.

23And 99others 100save 101with fear, 102pulling them out of the fire; hating even 103the garment 104spotted by the flesh.

99 Namely, who are willful or stiff-necked.

100 That is, seek to save by good admonitions. See 1 Tim. 4:16.

101 Gr. in fear, that is, seek to affright them by propounding of the fearful judgment of God, which shall pass upon such in case they do not repent, 2 Tim. 4:2.

102 That is, pluck them without delay out of the manifest danger of loosing their salvation, as one does when somebody has fallen into the fire. For, a penitent sinner is, as it were, plucked out of hell fire.

103 That is, not only uncleanness and other similar sins, but also what has any communion therewith.

104 This seems to be spoken with regard to the uncleanness of the law, according to which all who touched anything that was unclean, was also accounted unclean.

24Now unto him that is able to keep you from 105falling, and to present you faultless 106before the presence of his glory with exceeding joy,

105 Or, stumbling, treading awry.

106 That is, before Him, Who is glorious.

25To thew only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and 107ever. Amen.

w Rom. 16:27; 1 Tim. 1:17.

107 Gr. into all ages.