The determined rejection and manifold judgments of the Jews. Jeremiah complaining that he is the object of universal hatred, God promiseth good to him amidst the general calamity. He complaineth of the evils he underwent for God's sake. God promiseth to support and favour him in the due discharge of his office.
1THEN1 said the LORD unto me, Thougha2Mosesb and Samuelc stood before me, yet my 3mind could not be toward this people: 4cast them out of my sight, and let them go forth.
1 God answers further to the previous intercession of Jeremiah.
a Ezek. 14:14.
2 That is, though they were now alive and prayed for this people, yet I would not hear them, as I have done heretofore. See Exod. 32:14; 1 Sam. 7:9, and compare Ezek. 14:14, 18, 20.
b Exod. 32:14.
c 1 Sam. 7:9.
3 That is, soul, affection. Compare Psalm 27 on verse 12.
4 That is, prophecy unto them in My Name, that I will expel them out of My house, city and land. Compare Jer. 1 on verse 10.
2And it shall come to pass, if they say unto thee, Whither shall we go forth? then thou shalt tell them, Thus saith the LORD; Suchd as are 5for death, to death; and such as are for the sword, to the sword; and such as are for the famine, to the famine; and such as are for the captivity, to the captivity.
d Zech. 11:9.
5 That is, mortality, pestilence, etc. Understand: is ordained or delivered up (as verse 4), the same shall go forth to, etc., as may be gathered from the previous verse, and so in the sequel. Also Jer. 43:11.
3And I will 6appoint over them four 7kinds,e saith the LORD: the sword to slay, and the dogs to 8tear, and thef fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the earth, to devour and destroy.
6 Other, I will appoint over them; as officers or overseers.
7 That is, four sorts of plagues, which are accounted in the following. Compare Ezek. 14:21.
e Lev. 26:16.
8 To be dragged to pieces or to be torn in pieces.
f Jer. 7:33.
4And I will 9cause them to be 10removedg into all kingdoms of the earth, because of 11Manasseh the son of Hezekiah king of Judah, for that which he did in Jerusalem.
9 Or, appoint.
10 Or, to be chased about, to be driven about into all kingdoms, etc. See Deut. 28 on verse 25.
g Deut. 28:25.
11 2 Kings 21:11, 12, 13, etc.
5For who shall have pityh upon 12thee, O Jerusalem? or who shall 13bemoan thee? or who shall 14go aside to ask 15how thou doest?
h Isa. 51:19.
12 Or, who should spare thee?
13 Or, pity thee?
14 As a man steps aside out of the way to speak to a friend or his acquaintance, to ask him how he is doing. See Judges 18:15.
15 That is, concerning your welfare, how you are doing. See Gen. 43 on verse 27. As if the Lord said: They are not worthy, that a man would trouble himself so much about them, that he would once ask, whether they be well or ill.
6Thou hast forsakeni me, saith the LORD, thou art gone backward: therefore will I stretch out my hand against thee, and destroy thee; I am 16weary with repenting.
i Jer. 5:7.
16 That is, I am weary of withholding, delaying, diminishing or keeping off deserved judgments from them as I have oftentimes done. It is spoken of after the manner of men. Compare Gen. 6 on verse 6.
7And I will fanj them with a fan in the 17gates of the land; I 18will bereave them of 19children, I will destroy my people, since they return not from their 20ways.
j Jer. 4:11.
17 That is, in the borders, uttermost border cities, strongholds, on which ye rely at present; as men use to fan or winnow corn in or at the doors to scatter and winnow out the dust by the wind; also , etc. Other, in the cities of the land, that is, everywhere.
18 Or, I have bereaved, etc., and thus in the next verse.
19 Or, of all that they have, or that is dear unto them; because in the next verse is spoken of widows, and the Hebrew word is not only used of bereaving of children, but also of other things. See 2 Kings 2:19; Ezek. 36:12, 13, 14, 15, with the annotations.
20 That is, repented not of their wicked dealings and conduct. See Gen. 6 on verse 12.
821Their widows are 22increased to me above the sand of the seas: I have brought upon them against the 23mother of the 24young men a spoiler at 25noonday: I have caused him to fall upon it suddenly, and terrors upon 26the city.
21 Of the people.
22 Or, stronger in number; as their husbands would be slain in multitudes.
23 Namely, Jerusalem. Other, upon the mother of the young men a destroyer at noonday, that is, upon the assembly of the young men.
24 Or, a young man spoiling, that is, the king of Babel, being stout and strong in this work, like a young man.
25 Compare Jer. 6:4.
26 Hebr. the city and terrors or amazements. The sense may be: I will cause that young man to fall upon her, namely, upon the city of Jerusalem (called mother before) with great terrors. Or, namely, the city, and there shall be only terror, or, so that there shall be great terror. Or thus: I shall cause the cities and terrors suddenly to fall upon her.
927She that hath borne seven languisheth: she hath given up the 28ghost; her 29sunk is gone down while it was yet 30day: she hath been ashamed and confounded: and the 31residue of them will I deliver to the sword before their enemies, saith the LORD.
27 Namely, Jerusalem, that produced as much people as a woman who brings forth seven, that is, many (see Gen. 4 on verse 15).
28 Has died of grief and misery, and comfortless. Compare Job 11:20.
29 That is, her joy or flourishing state is turned into extreme sorrow and misery, at the time when she was yet in her prime or thought to be. Compare 2 Sam. 23:4; Amos 8:9; Micah 3:6.
k Amos 8:9.
30 Or, their day.
31 Who were not slain at the first.
10 ¶ 32Woe is me, my mother, that thou hast bornel me a man of 33strife and a man of contention to the whole earth! I have neither 34lent on usury, nor men have lent to me on usury; yet every one of them doth curse me.
32 The prophet, perceiving that he could not avert by prayer God’s judgment, is earnestly grieved, and complains of his sad and troublesome condition among his own wicked country men, against which the Lord comforts him in the next verse.
l Job 3:1, etc.; Jer. 20:14, etc.
33 With whom everyone strives and contends. Compare 2 Sam. 8 on verse 10.
34 From where commonly are wont to arise strives and disagreements, abuses and slanders. The prophet wants to say, that he gave them no cause of strife, hatred and cursing, as having nothing to do with them, but to acquaint them with the word of the Lord and His calling, for which alone he suffered.
11The LORD said, 35Verily it shall be well with thy 36remnant; verily I will cause the enemy to 37entreat thee well in the time of 38evil and in the time of affliction.
35 An abrupt kind of speech, very usual in making oaths. See Gen. 14 on verse 23; Deut. 1 on verse 35. God makes an oath to Jeremiah that He will turn his sufferings into a good condition, in order that in the time of the enemy’s invasion he shall have it much better than this wicked people shall. Some take it in an interrogatory way, in one and the same sense.
36 Or, the remainder of thee. The meaning seems to be: If I shall not cause it to go well with thee in the remaining time of thy life, wherein thou shalt remain, when this wicked people shall be plagued and perish; or, if I do not save a remnant of the people in the midst of judgments
37 Or, speak for, intercede, as Isa. 59:16. Or, cause the enemy to entreat thee well! That is, cause the enemy to deal lovingly and kindly with thee. See the fulfillment hereof Jer. 40:1, 2, 3, 4, etc.
38 That is, of plagues and miseries.
12Shall ironm39break the northern iron and the 40steel?
m Jer. 6:28.
39 As if God would said: By no means; because the northern iron is much harder, and is like steel, (as geographers also testify); are then these men, who vex thee, hard? I am yet harder, able enough to break their plots and designs against thee. But some conceive that God in this phrase begins again to speak of the coming of the Babylonians from the north, whose power the Jews with their defensive weapons would be as little able to resist as a common iron sword is able to break a northern sword of steel; both in a good sense.
40 Or, copper.
13Thy 41substance and thy treasures will I give to the spoiln42without price, and that for all thy sins, 43even in all thy borders.
41 That is, riches.
n Jer. 17:3.
42 Hebr. not for price, or not in purchase; that is, for nothing. They shall take all away at their pleasure, without giving anything for it.
43 Understand: shall I do this, or, for thy sins, which thou hast committed in all thy borders, as Jer. 17:3.
14And I will make 44thee to pass with thine enemies into a land which thou knowest not: for a 45fireo is kindled in mine anger, which shall burn upon you.
44 Or, carry over the treasures (whereof in the previous verse) into, etc. Other, I will cause thine enemies to pass over through the land, which thou knowest not, that is, thou shalt not know of their passage and arrival; they shall come upon thee by ways and in a manner unknown to thee. Some understand it thus: I will cause thine enemies to go over thee, that is, I will cause them to use thee tyrannically. Compare Job 13:13; Psalm 129:3.
45 Of war, misery, plagues, desolation. Compare Deut. 32:22; Job 22:20; Jer. 17:4; 43:12, with the annotations.
o Deut. 32:22.
15¶O LORD, thou 46knowest: 47remember me, and 48visit me, and revengep me of my persecutors; take me not away 49in thy longsuffering: know that for thy sake I have suffered rebuke.
46 Mine innocence, of which in verse 10. These are the words of the prophet again to God.
47 For good, As Neh. 5:19; 13:31. See Gen. 8 on verse 1.
48 Graciously. See Gen. 21 on verse 1.
p Jer. 11:20.
49 That is, whilst Thou dealest thus patiently with my persecutors, that Thou hinderest them not, but delayest Thy punishment, yet prevent, that they in the meanwhile take away my life, as they intend to do. Or, after Thy longsuffering, when the same shall be at an end, and Thou shalt punish this people, then save me. Other, in or by lengthening of thine anger, that is, whilst Thou shalt punish this wicked people a long time, make, I pray, a distinction between them and me, that I may not perish with them. Compare Psalm 26:9.
16Thy words were 50found, and I did eat them; and thy word was unto me the joy and rejoicing of mine heart: for 51I am called by thy name, O LORD God of 52hosts.
50 That is, as soon as they were present, were revealed to me, or represented unto me by Thy revelation, I forthwith embraced them with great zeal and minded them most diligently. Compare Ezek. 2:8; 3:1, 2, 3, with the annotations, and Rev. 10:9.
51 Hebr. Thy name is called or proclaimed upon me, since I am Thy servant and Thy prophet. See Jer. 7:10.
52 See 1 Kings 18 on verse 15.
17 I 53sat not in the assembly of the 54mockers,q nor rejoiced; I sat 55alone because of thy 56hand: for thou hast filled me with 57indignation.
53 Compare Psalm 1:1.
54 As the priests and the false prophets were at that time.
q Psalm 1:1.
55 Separating myself from the wicked, being grieved and weeping for their wickedness and the approaching plagues. Compare Jer. 9:2; 13:17. Likewise Exod. 33:7.
56 Namely, Thy punishing hand, which Thou wilt stretch out against this people; or, because of Thy command, because I wanted to be entirely governed by Thy hand, and by Thy Spirit of prophecy, and obey Thee. See Ezek. 1 on verse 3.
57 An holy indignation, which I have drawn from Thy prophecies against this people’s obstinacy toward Thee, and cruelty toward me. Compare Jer. 6:11.
18Why is my painr58perpetual, and my wound incurable, which refuseth to be healed? wilt thou be 59altogether unto me as a liar, and as waters that 60fail?s
r Jer. 30:15.
58 Or, strong, piercing through. See of the Hebrew word Psalm 13 on verse 1.
59 Or, in a manner. Hebr. being be, that is, wouldst Thou in every way show Thyself towards me as if Thou didst deal with lies? Seeing Thou hast made me such strong promises (Jer. 1:17, 18, 19), and yet I am daily plagued by this people, and am in danger.
60 That dry up, flow away, in order that he is deceived, who comes for water to them. Compare Job 6:15. Thus the prophet is assaulted with impatience, grief, diffidence and murmuring, by reason of the people’s wickedness; whereupon God instructs and comforts him in the following words.
s Job 6:15, etc.
19¶Therefore thus saith the LORD, If thou 61return, then will I 62bring thee again, and thou shalt 63stand before me: and if thou take forth 64the precious from the vile, thou shalt be as my 65mouth: 66let them return unto thee; but 67return not thou unto them.
61 From this impatience and murmuring (whereof in the previous verse), so that they do not draw thee away from thy duty and office.
62 That is, settle and establish thee as anew in thy prophetical ministry. Other, if thou shalt return thyself that way, that I do turn thee, that is, faithfully execute My commands, then shalt thou, etc.
63 That is, minister unto Me, be and continue My servant and prophet. See Deut. 10 on verse 8; 1 Kings 17:1; 18:15.
64 Or, the precious one from the vile one, that is, sever the godly (who are most precious in My sight) from the wicked, telling both of them severally and boldly whatsoever I command thee. Some understand here the distinguishing between true and false doctrine, prophecy, comfort, etc. It seems to be a comparison, taken from the work of goldsmiths. Compare Jer. 6:29, and see likewise Psalm 12 on verse 8.
65 Compare Jer. 1:9; that is, My true prophet and interpreter.
66 Or, they shall return unto thee, seeking counsel and comfort from thee. See Jer. 37:3.
67 That thou wouldst fail through faintheartedness or human fear, yield, join or agree to them in their wickedness, also seek counsel and comfort from them.
20And I 68will make thee unto this people a fenced brasen wall:t and they shall fight against thee, but they shall not prevail against thee: for I am with thee to save thee and to deliver thee, saith the LORD.
68 Or, I will put thee, or, I do put thee, namely, as it were anew. Compare Jer. 1:18.
t Jer. 1:18.
21And I will deliver thee out of the hand of the wicked, and I will redeem thee out of the hand of the terrible.