The apostle foretelleth the evil characters that should appear in the last days. He describeth the enemies of the truth: setteth forth unto Timothy his own example, and exhorteth him to abide in the doctrine he had learned, commending unto him the manifold use of the holy scriptures.
1THISa1know also, that 2in the last days 3perilous times 4shall come.
a 1 Tim. 4:1; 2 Peter 2:3; Jude verse 18.
1 Namely, in order that you may arm yourself against it, and warn others.
2 The times of the New Testament are such called; from the spreading abroad of the Gospel unto the end of the world. See 1 Cor. 10:11; 1 Tim. 4:1. Or, in the following times, Acts 2:17.
3 That is, troublesome, full of sadness and danger for the godly.
4 Or, be at hand.
2For 5men shall be 6lovers of their own selves, 7covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy,
5 That is, the greater part, or largest company of men.
6 Or, self-lovers, that is, loving themselves too much, esteeming themselves too much, and seeking in all things their own profit.
7 That is, braggers, boasters of their gifts and virtues.
38Without natural affection, 9trucebreakers, false accusers, 10incontinent,b11fierce, despisers of those that are 12good,
8 Namely, which God has naturally planted in the hearts of parents towards their children, and of children towards their parents; which we see also by nature planted in brute animals. See Isa. 49:15; Rom. 1:31.
9 That is, with whom no covenant of friendship can be made. Or, covenant breakers, Rom. 1:31.
10 Namely, in meat, drink or carnal pleasure.
b uncontrolled, unrestrained
11 Or, wild, not tame, or, not sociable, with whom it is difficult to associate.
12 Or, not lovers of good, that is, to the virtue.
4Traitors, 13heady, highminded,c lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God;
13 That is, who suffer themselves to be driven hastily by their affections this way or that way.
c puffed up with pride
5Having a 14form of godliness, but denying 15the power thereof: 16from suchd turn away.
14 Gr. morphosin, this word also indeed signifies a representation or pattern, Rom. 2:20, but is here taken for an outward form or appearance.
15 That is, they do not practice the actual exercise thereof.
16 That is, hold no communion with such persons, but avoid them.
d Mat. 18:17; Rom. 16:17; 2 Thes. 3:6; Titus 3:10; 2 John verse 10.
6Fore of this sort are they which 17creep into 18houses, and 19lead captive sillyf20women 21laden with sins, 22led away with divers 23lusts,
e Mat. 23:14; Titus 1:11.
17 That is, carry themselves in a deceitful and impertinent manner into the same.
18 Or, households.
19 That is, with fair speeches draw their hearts unto themselves, and lead them whither they will, as they do those who are taken captive in war.
f simple, foolish
20 That is, such as are fickle minded and unsteady.
21 Or, overcharged; that is, who are heavy laden with the pack of their sins as with a burden heaped up.
22 Namely, as a man drives unreasonable animals before him.
23 Namely, foolish and vain, whereof many and several are found in such silly women.
724Ever learning, and never 25able to come to the knowledge 26of the truth.
24 That is, who out of curiosity and unsettledness of mind would always learn something that is new, and for this end seek teachers who may satisfy their curiosity.
25 Namely, forasmuch as such teachers neither know the foundation themselves, nor teach it unto others.
26 Namely, of the true and right foundation of christian religion, in which the right knowledge of sin, and the comfort of consciences against sin must be sought.
8Nowg as 27Jannes and 28Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also resist 29the truth: men of corrupt 30minds, 31reprobate concerning the faith.
g Exod. 7:11.
27 These are the names of the Egyptian sorcerers, who sought to make the miracles of Moses ineffectual, Exodus 7, whose names are not expressed in the Holy Scripture, Exod. 7:11, but are here related by the apostle either out of some Jewish writers, or passed around by some old tradition. From which we may not conclude that there are some unwritten traditions concerning any articles of doctrine, seeing this concerns history only. See of the same, Eusebius, de praep. Euang. lib. 9, cap. 3, who relates these names out of a Pythagorean philosopher Numenius; as also Plinius, lib. 30, cap. 1, makes mention of this Jannes. It appears from this that these names were then known not only among the Jews, but also amongst the Gentiles.
28 Others call him Mambres.
29 Namely, the doctrine of the Gospel, and those who teach and defend this truth.
30 Or, of understanding, being blinded by their wicked affections.
31 That is, are not to be accounted for sincere teachers or believers of the doctrine of faith; see 1 Cor. 9:27.
9But they shall proceed 32no further: for 33their folly shall be manifest unto all men, as 34theirs also was.
32 Namely, in esteem with men, to deceive them thereby, though they shall increase in wickedness, verse 13.
33 That is, their foolish and false doctrine, or, their dishonesty and hypocrisy.
34 Namely, the Egyptian sorcerers mentioned before.
10But thou hast fully 35known my doctrine, 36manner of life, 37purpose, 38faith, 39longsuffering, 40charity, 41patience,
35 Or, endeavored after, that is, having learned and imitated by following me constantly. Or, understood from me as well as from others. For, Timothy was then not yet with Paul when he suffered this persecution at Antioch, Acts 16:1. See of this word Luke 1:3 and 1 Tim. 4:6.
36 Or, discretion, namely, in ordering my life as well as in administering my office.
37 That is, my intention and aim which I have always propounded to myself in my ministry.
38 Or, faithfulness, confidence, steadfastness in the faith.
39 Namely, towards gainsayers, to win or convince them, and as well as towards the brethren, in bearing with their infirmities.
40 Namely, shown towards enemies and as well as towards friends.
41 Namely, in bearing of injury, slanders, reproaches and all manner of persecutions.
1142Persecutions,h afflictions, which came unto me at 43Antioch, at Iconium,i at Lystra;j44what persecutions I endured: butk out of them all the Lord delivered me.
42 Namely, which I have suffered, or, which were brought upon me.
h Acts 13:50.
43 Namely, not situated in Syria, but in Pisidia, about Iconium and Lystra. See the history hereof Acts 13; 14.
i Acts 14:2.
j Acts 14:19.
44 Namely, yet many more of the same. See 2 Cor. 11:23, etc.
k Psalm 34:19; 2 Cor. 1:10.
12Yea, andl all 45that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall 46suffer persecution.
l Mat. 16:24; Luke 24:26; John 17:14; Acts 14:22; 1 Thes. 3:3.
45 That is, who will steadfastly profess, live according to and spread abroad the christian doctrine or religion.
46 Namely, by wicked men. And therefore they must prepare themselves for it, and arm themselves against it with patience and steadfastness.
13But 47evil men and 48seducers shall wax 49worse and worse, 50deceiving, and 51being deceived.
47 Such as are the tyrants and persecutors.
48 Gr. jugglers, who do, as it were, bewitch men with false doctrine, Gal. 3:1.
49 That is, more and more turn away from the pure doctrine, and still more and more seek to deceive the people, and to hate, trouble and persecute the godly.
50 That is, using all craft and diligence to deceive men from the right way of salvation.
51 Or, being deceived; erring themselves, being in the wrong way.
14But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been 52assured of, knowing 53of whom thou hast learned them;
52 Namely, that it is the true doctrine. Or, that is committed to thee.
53 Namely, from me who am an apostle, called by the Lord Christ Himself, Gal. 1:1, and was taken up into the third heaven, 2 Cor. 12:2, etc. See 2 Tim. 2:2.
15And that 54from a child thou hast known the 55holy scriptures, which are able to 56make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.
54 Namely, having been exercised in the Scripture by your grandmother and mother. See 2 Tim. 1:5.
55 Namely, wherewith my doctrine agrees perfectly, and out of which the same is taken, and whereby it is confirmed. See Acts 26:22.
56 Or, instruct, that is, are able to teach thee all the wisdom which is needful to know for people to come unto salvation.
1657Allm scripture is given by inspiration 58of God, and is profitable for 59doctrine, for 60reproof, for 61correction, for 62instruction in righteousness:
57 That is, the whole Scripture, as this word all is taken, 1 Cor. 13:2, whereby are principally understood the writings of the Old testament, of which the writings of the New testament are a further explication, and which therefore are also comprehended under it, as many of them as were then written when Paul wrote this epistle a little before his death, 2 Tim. 4:6; which must also in like manner be understood of the rest which then were not yet written. See 2 Peter 3:16; Rev. 1:1; 22:16, etc.
m 2 Peter 1:20.
58 Gr. God breathed, that is, by inspiration of the Holy Spirit, Who is a Spirit of truth, and has led the writers of these writings into all truth, that they could not err. See John 16:13; 2 Peter 1:20, 21.
59 Namely, of the main articles of the christian religion.
60 Or, reprimand, conviction; namely, of errors and false doctrines.
61 Namely, of life and of evil morals.
62 That is, teach perfectly what is just and unjust, honest and dishonest, and how one must live soberly, righteously and godly in this world. Titus 2:12.
17That 63the man of God may be 64perfect, 65throughly furnished unto all good works.
63 See of this word 1 Tim. 6:11.
64 Perfectly learn from it and understand all the parts of his office.
65 That is, well provided in all things.