David subdueth the Philistines, and maketh the Moabites tributary. He smiteth Hadadezer and the Syrians. Toi king of Hamath sendeth his son with presents to bless David; who dedicateth the presents, and the spoil which he had taken, to God. He putteth garrisons in Edom. His good reign; a list of his principal officers.
1AND after this ita came to pass, that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them: and David took 1Metheg-ammah out of the hand of the Philistines.
a 1 Chron. 18:1, etc.
1 That is, the bridle of Ammah, or, of the elbow. It seems altogether that hereby is meant Gath, which was the royal city or metropolis of the Philistines, expressly mentioned, 1 Chron. 18:1, and (as some perceive) situated upon a mountain called Ammah, and here called a bridle, because by its strength and power it bridled and kept in awe the surrounding places, and hindered the invasion of the enemies.
2And he smote Moab, and 2measured them with a line, 3casting them down to the ground; even with two lines measured he to put to death, and with one full line to keep alive. And so the Moabites became David's servants, and 4brought gifts.
2 That is, he divided their land by measuring it, which was done at that time with lines or cords, destroying by lot two parts of the inhabitants, but saving one full part alive; or, he divided the people into three equal parts, by casting lots so equal as if they had been measured with lines, etc. God indeed had commanded to spare Ammon and Moab (the posterity of Lot) Deut. 2:9, 19, but because they had exercised bitter enmity against the people of God and had combined with their enemies, therefore David dealt in an hostile manner with them. See Num. 22:2, 3, 4, etc.; 24:17; 25:17, 18; 31:2; Judges 3:14, 21, 28, 30; 1 Sam. 14:47, 2 Sam. 10:4, 7, etc.
3 In a contemptible manner casting them down to the ground: or, so beating and bruising them that they bowed (as it were) down to the ground, being wearied out, and conquered.
4 As a sign of subjection. So below verse 6.
3¶David smote also 5Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, king of 6Zobah, as 7he went 8to recover his border at the river Euphrates.
5 Called also Hadarezer: 1 Chron. 18:3.
6 See 1 Sam. 14:47. This is thought to have been that part of Syria which is called Sophene; these words Zoba, or Zobah, and Sophene, agreeing very near together. See also 2 Sam. 10:6.
7 David; or, as some perceive, Hadadezer.
8 That is, to extend his power, etc. Other, to set, or recover his borders, (Hebr. to cause to return, or, to bring back) at the river Phrat: that is, Euphrates, which border was promised Israel by God, and consequently was to be allotted to them. Compare 1 Chron. 18:3, and see Gen. 15:18, etc.
4And David tookb from him a thousand 9chariots, and seven hundred 10horsemen, and twenty thousand footmen: and David houghedc11all the 12chariot horses, but reserved of them for an hundred chariots.
b 1 Chron. 18:4.
9 This is here inserted from 1 Chron. 18:4, where this history is repeated.
10 Understand (as some take it) troops or companies of horsemen, each troop or company consisting of ten, which make together seven thousand horsemen, which number is expressly set down in 1 Chron. 18:14. Compare 2 Sam. 10 on verse 18.
c cut the hamstring or hock
11 Except the hundred which he kept, as follows.
12 Or, wagons; see Joshua 11:6.
5And when 13the Syrians of Damascus came to succour Hadadezer king of Zobah, David slew of the Syrians two and twenty thousand men.
13 Hebr. Aram; that is, Syria. See Gen. 10 on verse 22; Gen. 22 on verse 21, whereby the Syrians are understood. Syria of Damascus was indeed the chief part or kingdom among all the parts, lands, provinces, or kingdoms (whereof some are rehearsed below, 2 Sam. 10:6) which were comprehended under Syria: being for distinction sake called Syria of Damascus, from the name of the metropolis, or capital city of this kingdom.
6Then David put garrisons in Syria of Damascus: and the Syrians became servants to David, and 14brought gifts. And the LORD 15preserved David whithersoever he went.
14 As verse 2.
15 Or, gave David salvation, or, conquest, victory: for which the Hebrew word may be fittingly taken in military affairs. So verse 14, and 2 Sam. 22 on verse 51; 2 Sam. 23:10, 12; Psalm 20:5; Prov. 21:31, etc.
7And David took the shields of gold that were on the 16servants of Hadadezer, and brought them to Jerusalem.
16 That is, officers.
8And from 17Betah, and from Berothai, cities of Hadadezer, king David took exceeding much brass.
17 Called Tibhath, and Chun, 1 Chron. 18:8.
9¶When 18Toi king of 19Hamath heard that David had smitten all the host of Hadadezer,
18 Called also Tou, 1 Chron. 18:9.
19 See Num. 13 on verse 21.
10Then Toi sent 20Joram his son unto king David, 21to salute him, and 22to bless him, because he had fought against Hadadezer, and smitten him: for Hadadezer had 23wars with Toi. And Joram brought 24with him vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and vessels of brass:
20 Called Hadoram, 1 Chron. 18:10.
21 Hebr. concerning the peace; that is, to salute him in a friendly manner; see Gen. 43 on verse 27.
22 To salute him, and to bid him joy, in regard of the victory obtained, that is, to congratulate him, as we usually say.
23 Hebr. was a man of wars of Toi: that is, he made continual war against him, was his enemy, and fought against him, who never left him unmolested; see Gen. 9 on verse 20, and compare Judges 12 on verse 2; 2 Sam. 18 on verse 20; 2 Chron. 35 on verse 21; Psalm 41:9.
24 That is, Joram, the son of Toi, had these gifts or presents by him, ready at hand, as we use to say. See the like phrase, 1 Sam. 9:8; 2 Kings 5:5, etc.
11Which also king David did dedicate unto the LORD, with the silver and gold that he had dedicated of all nations which he subdued;
12Of Syria, and of Moab, and of the children of Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of Amalek, and of the spoil of Hadadezer, son of Rehob, king of Zobah.
13Andd David gat him a name when he returned from smiting of the Syrians 25in the valley of salt, being 26eighteen thousand men.
d Psalm 60 title.
25 Namely, got him a name, or smiting in the valley of salt, etc. whereof 2 Kings 14:7. This valley was situated at the south end of the Salt Sea, at the east end of the mountain of the Edomites or Seir.
26 Of the Edomites: see 1 Chron. 18:12, whereunto agrees the following verse. Compare also with the 7th annotation at Psalm 60 in the title.
14¶And he put garrisons in Edom; throughout all Edom put he garrisons, and all they of Edom became 27David’s servants. And the LORD 28preserved David whithersoever he went.
27 And his posterity, until the time of Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat. See 2 Kings 8:22.
28 As above in verse 6.
15And David reigned over all Israel; and David 29executed 30judgment and justice unto all his people.
29 Hebr. was doing.
30 See Gen. 18 on verse 19.
16And Joabe the son of Zeruiah was 31over the host; and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was 32recorder;
e 1 Chron. 18:15, etc.
31 That is, captain general, or commander in chief.
32 See 1 Kings 4 on verse 3.
17And 33Zadok the son of Ahitub, and 34Ahimelech the son of Abiathar, were the 35priests; and Seraiah was the 36scribe;
33 Of Aaron's line or race through Eleazar, 1 Chron. 6:4, 8; 24:3. See of this man 2 Sam. 15:24; 20:25; 1 Chron. 16:39; 24:3; 29:22. Likewise 1 Kings 1:8, 32, 38; 2:35.
34 Of Aaron’s line or race through Ithamar and Eli, 1 Chron. 24:3.
35 Of the orders of priests, see Num. 3 on verse 32; 2 Kings 23 on verse 4.
36 See 1 Kings 4:3.
18And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over both the 37Cherethites and the Pelethites; and David's sons were 38chief rulers.
37 Over whom Benaiah was commander or governor, see 2 Sam. 20:23; 1 Chron. 18:17. Of the Cherethites and Pelethites, see 1 Kings 1 on verse 38.
38 Or, head officers, chief rulers. Of the Hebrew word (which otherwise generally signifies priests) see Gen. 41 on verse 45. Here it cannot signify priests, because David's sons were of the tribe of Judah, not of the tribe of Levi. This word is thus expounded, 1 Chron. 18:17, David's sons were the first on the king’s hand, or, ready at hand for the king, as we use to say.