2 Samuel 11

1While Joab besiegeth Rabbah, 2David committeth adultery with Uriah's wife. 5Bath-sheba conceiveth; David sendeth for Uriah from the army, who cometh to David, but refuseth to go down to his house. 14He carrieth to Joab a letter requiring his death, is exposed in the front of the battle, and slain. 18Joab sendeth the news of it to David. 22The messenger's report, and David's answer. 26David taketh Bath-sheba to wife, who beareth a son.

1AND ita came to pass, after the year was 1expired, at the time when kings go forth to battle, that David sent Joab, and his 2servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and besieged 3Rabbah. But David tarried still at Jerusalem.

a 1 Chron. 20:1, etc.

1 That is, when the year was expired and the summer time of the next year arrived, when kings were wont to march into the field to make war, the weather then serving to get provision and necessaries both for men and beasts. See 1 Kings 20:22, 26; 1 Chron. 20:1; 2 Chron. 36:10.

2 That is, his officers with the soldiers.

3 The capital city of the Ammonites, situated beyond Jordan at Mount Gilead, by the source of the brook Jabbok. See also 2 Sam. 12:26, etc.

2¶And it came to pass in an eveningtide, that David arose from off his 4bed, and walked upon the 5roof of the king's house: and from the roof he saw a woman washing herself; and the woman was very beautiful to look upon.

4 Whereon he had taken his afternoon’s rest. Compare 2 Sam. 4:5, 7.

5 See of the structure of roofs Deut. 22 on verse 8.

3And David sent and enquired after the woman. And 6one said, 7Is not this 8Bath-sheba, the daughter of 9Eliam, the wife of Uriah the 10Hittite?

6 Hebr. he said, that is, someone of his court family said.

7 Intimating that it was surely Bath-sheba. See of such kind of questions Judges 4 on verse 6; 2 Sam. 10:3.

8 Otherwise called Bath-shua, 1 Chron. 3:5.

9 Otherwise called Ammiel, 1 Chron. 3:5.

10 But converted to the true religion and being zealous therein, as appears in verse 11. Compare 1 Sam. 26:6. Some think that he was called an Hittite, because he had dwelt among the children of Heth. Of this people see Gen. 23:3, etc.

4And David 11sent messengers, and 12took her; and she came in unto him, and he lay with her; for she was 13purified fromb her uncleanness: and she returned unto her house.

11 Notwithstanding he had understood that she had a lawful husband.

12 Or, caused her to be fetched, that is, caused her to be taken and brought.

13 Hebr. hallowed, that is, purified, cleansed. See hereof Lev. 15:19, 20, 21, etc.

b Lev. 15:19; 18:19.

5And the woman conceived, and 14sent and 15told David, and said, I am with child.

14 Perceiving that she was with child by David.

15 That is, sent him word.

6¶And David sent to Joab, saying, Send me Uriah the Hittite. And Joab sent Uriah to David.

7And when Uriah was come unto him, David demanded of him how Joab 16did, and how the people did, and how the war prospered.

16 Hebr. after the peace of; and so in the sequence. See Gen. 43 on verse 27; 2 Sam. 8 on verse 10.

8And David said to Uriah, Go down to thy house, and 17wash thy feet. And Uriah departed out of the king's house, and there 18followed him a messcof meat from the king.

17 See Gen. 18 on verse 4.

18 Hebr. a mess of the king went forth after him. Understand, a dish from the king’s table whereby David would stir up Uriah to make merry with his wife and to lie with her to make thus to believe that Uriah was the father of the child and so to hide his adultery from the eyes of men.

c dish of food

9But Uriah slept at the door of the king's house with all the servants of his lord, and went not down to his house.

10And when they had told David, saying, Uriah went not down unto his house, David said unto Uriah, Camest thou not from thy 19journey? why then didst thou not go down unto thine house?

19 Hebr. way.

11And Uriah said unto David, The 20ark, and Israel, and Judah, abide in tents; and my lord Joab, and the servants of my lord, are encamped in the 21open fields; shall I then go into mine house, to eat and to drink, and to lie with my wife? as 22thou livest, and as thy soul liveth, 23I will not do this thing.

20 Which they were wont to take along with them in great wars to inquire of the Lord in time of need, as appears in Num. 31 on verse 6; 1 Sam. 4:4; 14:18, although the same was vain and fruitless in respect of hypocrisy, who, being unfaithful, do in vain rely on the outward signs of grace.

21 Hebr. face of the field.

22 See Gen. 42 on verse 16.

23 Whereupon must be understood: then God do this and that to me. Of such abrupt phrase used in swearing an oath, see Gen. 14 on verse 23. These zealous and consecrated reasons of Uriah ought to have moved David to sin no more against this godly man.

12And David said to Uriah, Tarry here to day also, and to morrow I will let thee depart. So Uriah abode in Jerusalem that day, and the morrow.

13And when David had called him, he did eat and drink 24before him; and 25he made him drunk: and at even 26he went out to lie on his bed with the servants of 27his lord, but 28went not down to his house.

24 That is, in David’s presence, at his table.

25 David made Uriah drunk; all this tending to the same end whereof mention is made in verse 8.

26 Uriah.

27 Namely, of David.

28 Though he was drunk, he remained steadfast in his resolution, mentioned in verse 11.

14¶And it came to pass in the morning, that David wrote 29a letter to Joab, and sent it by the hand of Uriah.

29 When he perceived that the first attempt, to hide his adultery by Uriah’s physical union with Bath-sheba, miscarried, he attempted to cause the good Uriah to be destroyed in such a way as that the carriage and practice (as he thought) would not be perceived; falling thus, being blinded by his own flesh and seduced by the devil, from one grievous sin into another.

15And he wrote in the letter, 30saying, 31Set ye Uriah in the 32forefront of the hottest battle, and retire ye from him, that he may be smitten, and die.

30 That is, thus, in this manner.

31 Hebr. give, bring.

32 Hebr. over against the face of the strongest battle, that is, where are the most stout and valiant soldiers of the enemy, as is mentioned in the following verse, that, being forsaken by you, he without fail is slain and perishes.

16And it came to pass, when Joab 33observed the 34city, that he assigned Uriah unto a place where he knew that valiant men were.

33 To perceive where the besieged may employ their valiant soldiers and to set Uriah in the front against them. Other, had set watch against.

34 Namely, Rabbah, which he had besieged, verse 1.

17And the men of the city went out, and fought with Joab: and there 35fell some of the people of the servants of David; and Uriah the Hittite died also.

35 That is, there were some slain.

18¶Then Joab sent and told David all the things concerning the war;

19And charged the messenger, saying, When thou hast made an end of telling the matters of the war unto the king,

20And if so be that the king's wrath arise, and he say unto thee, Wherefore approached ye so nigh unto the city when ye did fight? knew ye not that they would 36shoot from the wall?

36 With arrows or other instruments of war, as was customary in those times. See verse 24.

21Whod smote Abimelech the son of 37Jerubbesheth? did not a woman cast a piece of a millstone upon him from the wall, that he died in Thebez? why went ye nigh the wall? then say thou, Thy servant Uriah the Hittite is dead also.

d Judges 9:52, 53.

37 Otherwise called: Jerubbaal that is, Gideon. See Judges 7:1.

22¶So the messenger went, and came and shewed David all that Joab had sent him for.

23And the messenger said unto David, Surely 38the men 39prevailed against us, and came out unto us into the field, and we were upon them even unto the entering of the 40gate.

38 Of the besieged city of Rabbah.

39 Or, because the men of the city behaved themselves manfully or valiantly against us and marched out against us into the field, therefore we, etc.

40 That is, we beat them back to the very entrance of the city gate, insomuch that through the fierceness of the battle, we, coming somewhat too close, lost some of our men.

24And the shooters shot from off the wall upon thy servants; and some of the king's servants be dead, and thy servant Uriah the Hittite is dead also.

25Then David said unto the messenger, Thus shalt thou say unto Joab, 41Let not this thing displease thee, for the sword devoureth 42one as well as another: make thy battle more strong against the city, and overthrow it: and 43encourage thou him.

41 Hebr. Let not this thing be evil in thine eyes; let it not seem strange to you.

42 Hebr. according to that and according to this, or, so as thus.

43 David charges the messenger to strengthen Joab thus, and in the king’s name to inspire good courage in him. This history is continued in 2 Sam. 12:26.

26¶And when the wife of Uriah heard that Uriah her husband was dead, she mourned for her 44husband.

44 Or, lord. Compare Gen. 20:3 and see Exod. 21:3.

27And when the mourning was past, David sent and 45fetched her to his house, and she became his wife, and bare him a son. But the thing that David had done 46displeased the LORD.

45 Hebr. gathered her. See Judges 19 on verse 15.

46 That is, this entire business of David displeased the Lord exceedingly.